October was hot and rainy, but drought remains in the Algarve and Baixo Alentejo

Europe had the warmest October (since 1979), with temperatures almost 2°C above the 1991-2020 average

The month of October was considered the hottest in Europe and the 5th hottest in mainland Portugal, revealed today the Portuguese Institute of the Sea and the Atmosphere (IPMA), in its Climatological Bulletin.

In mainland Portugal, in terms of precipitation, the month was also rainy in a large part of the territory, but the sex remains moderate to severe in Baixo Alentejo and Algarve.



In Western Europe there was even a heat wave (figure above), with record daily temperatures, notably in Austria, Switzerland and France, as well as in much of Italy and Spain.

Values ​​above 30°C were recorded in France and Spain and Austria recorded its hottest night ever for October, 20.4°C. It was the hottest October ever in France (since 1945), as well as in Austria and Switzerland.

Regarding rainfall in Europe, October saw drier than normal conditions in most of southern Europe and the Caucasus.

On the other hand, wetter than normal conditions were observed in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, regions of France and Germany, the United Kingdom and Ireland, northwest of Scandinavia and a large region of Eastern Europe and central Turkey.



In mainland Portugal, October was a very hot month in terms of air temperature and rainy in terms of precipitation.

It was the 5th hottest October in the last 92 years. The mean value of the mean air temperature, 18.73 °C, was 2.53 °C higher than the normal value (warmer October: 2017, 2014, 2011 and 1997).

The average minimum air temperature, 13.56 °C, was much higher than the normal value with an anomaly of +2.37 °C, the 4th highest value since 1931 (highest in 2006). The mean maximum air temperature, 23.91 °C, was higher than the mean value (anomaly of +2.68 °C) and is the 5th highest since 2000 (highest in 2017).

During the month, daily minimum temperature values ​​were always above the monthly average value (except day 1); the maximum temperature had more than half of the month with values ​​above the monthly average, with the period from 2 to 8 being highlighted, with the occurrence of a heat wave in the interior regions of Norte and Cento, the Tagus valley and some places in the interior Alentejo.

In mainland Portugal, in terms of rainfall, the month of October was rainy, with a total rainfall of 121.2 mm, which corresponds to 123% of the normal value.



The IPMA Bulletin highlights the rain that fell in the 2nd fortnight of October, with the most significant and intense precipitation occurring in the Minho and Douro Litoral region, where the 19th, 23, 28 and 29 stand out, with daily values ​​above 60 mm and with a monthly total exceeding 200 mm, even in some places exceeding 400 mm.

According to the PDSI index, on the 31st of October there was a significant reduction in the area and in the intensity of the drought situation, ending even in the Northwest region and in a large part of the Central region.

However, the regions south of Coimbra are still dry. The IPMA Bulletin highlights the cases of Baixo Alentejo and Algarve, where the drought remains moderate to severe.

The percentage distribution at the end of October is as follows: 9% light rain, 29.1% normal, 34.3% light drought, 17.9% moderate drought and 9.7% severe drought.